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An extensive apron of ash and fragmented volcanic rocks surrounds Mount St.
Farther away from the volcano, pumice and ash that fell during explosive eruptions form layers that bury the landscape to depths of 10 feet or more. The youngest stage, Spirit Lake, is further subdivided into six eruptive periods. Helens rises majestically above surrounding forests in this photo taken on May 17, 1980.As in earlier stages, Spirit Lake volcanism erupted mostly dacite, but significant amounts of basalt (less than 53% Si O This map, originally produced by the U. Geological Survey in 1919, shows the pre-1980 topography of Mount St. The gentle slopes on the flanks of the volcano are fans of volcanic debris and consist of ash, pumice, and volcanic rock fragments. Smith Creek Eruptive Period (3.9 to 3.3 ka)--During this period, Mount St. Two periods of activity, about 3.90 to 3.85 ka and 3.5 to 3.3 ka, deposited set "Y" ashes.The second period was initiated with an eruption that produced "Yn" ash.The volcano's edifice was mostly built by lava domes and flows from numerous eruptions.Using evidence in these lavas and other deposits, U. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have documented dozens of major individual eruptions of the volcano.
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Volcanism during the Ape Canyon Stage produced a small cluster of lava domes with maximum elevations of about 4,000 feet. Helens produced lava domes and flows, as well as explosive eruptions that ejected large volumes of ash and generated pyroclastic flows.